Impact of the COVID-19 lockdown to a port-city area: A two-year comparative PMF analysis of PM10 of polluting sources

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Title: Impact of the COVID-19 lockdown to a port-city area: A two-year comparative PMF analysis of PM10 of polluting sources
Authors: Tobarra, Daniel | Yubero Funes, Eduardo | Clemente, Álvaro | Carratalá, Adoración
Research Group/s: Residuos, Energía, Medio Ambiente y Nanotecnología (REMAN) | Recursos Hídricos y Desarrollo Sostenible
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Ingeniería Química | Universidad de Alicante. Instituto Universitario de Ingeniería de los Procesos Químicos
Keywords: PM10 | Positive matrix factorization | COVID-19 | Lockdown | Port | Source apportionment
Issue Date: 10-Dec-2023
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Atmospheric Environment. 2024, 319: 120285.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects that the COVID-19 lockdown had in the PM10 levels and sources in a city adjacent port where the transport of bulk materials is one of the main activities. For this, the 2020 PM10 chemistry and sources will be compared to an annual baseline period of 2017-18 in the same area. A total of 337 samples were chemically analyzed (30 chemical species) and a positive matrix factorization model was used to identify major PM10 sources. A Mann-Whitney test was used to find statistically relevant differences between periods. The model identified 8 factors two of them directly related to port activities (Shipping emissions and bulk materials), one associated to road traffic, three linked secondary sources (aged sea salt, secondary nitrate, ammonium sulphate) and two natural sources including fresh sea salt and long-range transport from Saharan intrusions. Road traffic and Shipping sources show a significant reduction in the lockdown period. However, after this period, the road traffic source quickly recovered showing no differences on a yearly basis with the reference year. Only the Shipping emissions source were greatly reduced in 2020 compared to 2017-18. On the other hand, the influence of natural sources kept PM10 from reducing drastically during the lockdown year (2020).
Sponsor: This work has been carried out within the framework of the doctoral program of the University of Alicante in collaboration with companies (UAIND-17-1A). The authors want to express their gratitude to the Alicante Port Authority for their participation in this program with the project (PUERTOALICANTE1-20Y), which together with the University provided the funding the sampling and the PhD grant.
ISSN: 1352-2310 (Print) | 1873-2844 (Online)
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2023.120285
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license (
Peer Review: si
Publisher version:
Appears in Collections:INV - Recursos Hídricos y Desarrollo Sostenible - Artículos de Revistas
INV - REMAN - Artículos de Revistas

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