Predicting the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of a Limestone Exposed to High Temperatures by Point Load and Leeb Rebound Hardness Testing

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Títol: Predicting the Uniaxial Compressive Strength of a Limestone Exposed to High Temperatures by Point Load and Leeb Rebound Hardness Testing
Autors: Garrido, M. Elvira | Petnga, Ferry B. | Martínez-Ibáñez, Víctor | Serón Gáñez, José Bernardo | Hidalgo Signes, Carlos | Tomás, Roberto
Grups d'investigació o GITE: Ingeniería del Terreno y sus Estructuras (InTerEs)
Centre, Departament o Servei: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Ingeniería Civil
Paraules clau: Limestone | Strength | Hardness | High temperatures | Uniaxial compression strength | Point load test | Hardness Leeb-D value | Historic building
Àrees de coneixement: Ingeniería del Terreno
Data de publicació: 12-d’octubre-2021
Editor: Springer Nature
Citació bibliogràfica: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. 2022, 55: 1-17.
Resum: The effect of exposure to high temperature on rock strength is a topic of interest in many engineering fields. In general, rock strength is known to decrease as temperature increases. The most common test used to evaluate the rock strength is the uniaxial compressive strength test (UCS). It can only be carried out in laboratory and presents some limitations in terms of the number, type and preparation of the samples. Such constrains are more evident in case of rocks from historical monuments affected by a fire, where the availability of samples is limited. There are alternatives for an indirect determination of UCS, such as the point load test (PLT), or non-destructive tests such as the Schmidt’s hammer, that can also be performed in situ. The aims of this research are: (i) measuring the effect of high temperatures and cooling methods on the strength and hardness of a limestone named Pedra de Borriol widely used in several historic buildings on the E of Spain, and (ii) studying the possibility of indirectly obtaining UCS by means of PLT and Leeb hardness tests (LHT), using Equotip type D. Limestone samples were heated to 105 (standard conditions), 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 ºC and cooled slowly (in air) and quickly (immersed in water). After that, UCS, PLT and LHT tests were performed to evaluate the changes as temperature increases. Results show decreases over 90% in UCS, of between 50 and 70% in PLT index and smaller than 60% in LHT index. Insignificant differences between cooling methods were observed, although slowly cooled samples provide slightly higher values than quickly cooled ones. The results indicate that LHT can be used to indirectly estimate UCS, providing an acceptable prediction. Research on correlating strength parameters in rocks after thermally treated is still scarce. This research novelty provides correlations to predict UCS in historic buildings if affected by a fire, from PLT and non-destructive methods such as LHT whose determination is quicker and easier.
Patrocinadors: The authors acknowledge the support by Canteras Bernad SL which has generously provided samples, and Department of Geotechnical and Geological Engineering of Universitat Politècnica de València and Department of Civil Engineering of Universidad de Alicante, for its continuous support. Open Access funding provided thanks to the CRUE-CSIC agreement with Springer Nature.
ISSN: 0723-2632 (Print) | 1434-453X (Online)
DOI: 10.1007/s00603-021-02647-0
Idioma: eng
Tipus: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Drets: © The Author(s) 2021. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
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