Carbon-, sulfur-, and phosphorus-based charge transfer reactions in inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry

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Title: Carbon-, sulfur-, and phosphorus-based charge transfer reactions in inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry
Authors: Grindlay, Guillermo | Gras, Luis | Mora, Juan | Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T.C. de
Research Group/s: Espectrometría Atómica Analítica
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Química Analítica, Nutrición y Bromatología
Keywords: Matrix effects | Charge transfer | Inductively coupled plasma | Atomic emission spectrometry | Mass spectrometry
Knowledge Area: Química Analítica
Issue Date: 1-Jan-2016
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2015, 115: 8-15. doi:10.1016/j.sab.2015.10.010
Abstract: In this work, the influence of carbon-, sulfur-, and phosphorus-based charge transfer reactions on the emission signal of 34 elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, I, In, Ir, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Pt, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Te, and Zn) in axially viewed inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry has been investigated. To this end, atomic and ionic emission signals for diluted glycerol, sulfuric acid, and phosphoric acid solutions were registered and results were compared to those obtained for a 1% w w− 1 nitric acid solution. Experimental results show that the emission intensities of As, Se, and Te atomic lines are enhanced by charge transfer from carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus ions. Iodine and P atomic emission is enhanced by carbon- and sulfur-based charge transfer whereas the Hg atomic emission signal is enhanced only by carbon. Though signal enhancement due to charge transfer reactions is also expected for ionic emission lines of the above-mentioned elements, no experimental evidence has been found with the exception of Hg ionic lines operating carbon solutions. The effect of carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus charge transfer reactions on atomic emission depends on (i) wavelength characteristics. In general, signal enhancement is more pronounced for electronic transitions involving the highest upper energy levels; (ii) plasma experimental conditions. The use of robust conditions (i.e. high r.f. power and lower nebulizer gas flow rates) improves carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus ionization in the plasma and, hence, signal enhancement; and (iii) the presence of other concomitants (e.g. K or Ca). Easily ionizable elements reduce ionization in the plasma and consequently reduce signal enhancement due to charge transfer reactions.
ISSN: 0584-8547 (Print) | 1873-3565 (Online)
DOI: 10.1016/j.sab.2015.10.010
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Peer Review: si
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Appears in Collections:INV - GEAA - Artículos de Revistas

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