Study of the Briquetting Process of Walnut Shells for Pyrolysis and Combustion

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Title: Study of the Briquetting Process of Walnut Shells for Pyrolysis and Combustion
Authors: Font, Rafael | Villar, Estefanía | Garrido, María A. | Moreno Caballero, Ana Isabel | Gómez-Rico, María Francisca | Ortuño García, Nuria
Research Group/s: Residuos, Energía, Medio Ambiente y Nanotecnología (REMAN)
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Ingeniería Química | Universidad de Alicante. Instituto Universitario de Ingeniería de los Procesos Químicos
Keywords: Walnut shells | Briquettes | Durability | Density | Binders | Valorization | Pyrolysis
Issue Date: 21-May-2023
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Font R, Villar E, Garrido MA, Moreno AI, Gómez-Rico MF, Ortuño N. Study of the Briquetting Process of Walnut Shells for Pyrolysis and Combustion. Applied Sciences. 2023; 13(10):6285.
Abstract: Walnut shells can be used as fuels in power plants directly or as biochars obtained by pyrolysis or torrefaction. They are an example of clean waste biomass which shows a low ash content and a high Net Calorific Value, making them excellent for energy recovery in industrial and non-industrial applications, such as in bakeries, restaurants, and homes. Their main inconvenience is their low bulk density. Densification is a possible solution that reduces the costs of transportation, handling, and storage. In this work, after the characterization of the walnut shells, briquettes were obtained using a hydraulic piston press briquette machine under different conditions to find the best quality without the need for previous grinding for pelletizing. This method features easy operation and maintenance, and the briquette shape could be adapted as desired. The quality of the briquettes was measured through their density and durability. After fixing a compaction pressure to obtain acceptable briquettes, the factors affecting their quality were studied: operating temperature, moisture content, and the presence of small amounts of walnuts. Good quality briquettes were obtained with a compaction pressure of 66 MPa, with densities around 1040 kg/m3, and durabilities higher than 94% when the process was carried at 140 °C. The greatest increase in durability was observed between briquettes obtained at room temperature and those obtained at 80 °C. The presence of small amounts of walnuts, common after the shelling process, improved the durability. Although water is necessary, briquettes obtained from biomass with only 1% of moisture showed better durabilities. Therefore, walnut shells are suitable for obtaining good quality briquettes according to the specifications of solid biofuels established in the standards, without the need for any pretreatment.
Sponsor: This research was funded by the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (Spain) [grant number AEI/10.13039/501100011033], by the University of Alicante [grant number UAUSTI21-03] and by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competividad [Research Project CTQ2016-76608-R].
ISSN: 2076-3417
DOI: 10.3390/app13106285
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Peer Review: si
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Appears in Collections:INV - REMAN - Artículos de Revistas

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