Differences in cognitive, motivational and contextual variables between under-achieving, normally-achieving, and over-achieving Spanish students: A mixed-effects analysis

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Title: Differences in cognitive, motivational and contextual variables between under-achieving, normally-achieving, and over-achieving Spanish students: A mixed-effects analysis
Other Titles: Diferencias en variables cognitivas, motivacionales y contextuales entre alumnado con rendimiento menor, igual y mayor al esperado: análisis de efectos mixtos
Authors: Veas, Alejandro | López-López, José Antonio | Gilar-Corbi, Raquel | Miñano, Pablo | Castejón, Juan Luis
Research Group/s: Habilidades, Competencias e Instrucción | Investigación en Inteligencias, Competencia Social y Educación (SOCEDU)
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y Didáctica
Keywords: Underachievement | Overachievement | Compulsory Secondary Education | Mixed-Effect Analysis | Rendimiento menor al esperado | Rendimiento mayor al esperado | Educación Secundaria Obligatoria | Análisis de Efectos Mixtos
Knowledge Area: Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos del Principado de Asturias | Universidad de Oviedo. Facultad de Psicología
Citation: Psicothema. 2017, 29(4): 533-538. doi:10.7334/psicothema2016.283
Abstract: There are few studies in Spain which analyze the influence of individual, motivational and contextual variables, which might be different between underachieving, normally achieving and overachieving students. Method: A total of 1,398 Spanish high school students participated. Mixed-effects models were used to analyze data. Results: The results showed some evidence of: (a) Partial mediational effect of self-concept on the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. (b) Higher levels of learning goals in the overachieving group than in the underachieving group, but no differences in achievement and reinforcement goals between groups. (c) Positive effect of learning strategies on attainment, both in the underachieving and the non-underachieving students. (d) Little effect of context variables on academic achievement, both in the underachieving and non-underachieving students. Conclusions: Underachieving students seem to employ all the learning strategies considered to a lesser extent than normally and overachieving students. They also have a lower level of learning goals. On the contrary, overachieving students score more highly than under and normally achieving students in almost all of the above factors. | Antecedentes: apenas existen estudios en España que analicen la influencia de variables cognitivas, motivacionales y contextuales capaces de establecer diferencias entre los estudiantes con rendimiento menor, igual y mayor al esperado. Método: participaron 1.398 estudiantes españoles de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria. Se emplearon modelos de efectos mixtos para el análisis de datos. Resultados: los resultados mostraron evidencia de: (a) efecto mediacional parcial del auto-concepto en la asociación de la habilidad cognitiva y el rendimiento académico; (b) mayores niveles de metas de aprendizaje en el grupo de estudiantes con rendimiento mayor al esperado; (c) efecto positivo de las estrategias de aprendizaje sobre el rendimiento en todos los grupos; (d) efecto pequeño de las variables contextuales sobre el rendimiento en todos los grupos. Conclusiones: los estudiantes con rendimiento menor al esperado emplean en menor medida las estrategias de aprendizaje y las metas orientadas al aprendizaje. Por el contrario, los estudiantes con rendimiento mayor al esperado muestran niveles superiores que el resto de grupos en la mayor parte de variables.
Sponsor: The present work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Award number: EDU2012-32156) and the Vice Chancellor for Research of the University of Alicante (Award number: GRE11-15). This work has also been developed thanks to an academic stay of the corresponding author at the University of Bristol (Reference of the grant: EEBB-I-15_09943).
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10045/70187
ISSN: 0214-9915 | 1886-144X (Internet)
DOI: 10.7334/psicothema2016.283
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © 2017 Psicothema
Peer Review: si
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2016.283
Appears in Collections:INV - Habilidades, Competencias e Instrucción - Artículos de Revistas

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