Coupling dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: An oxymoron?
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|Title:||Coupling dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: An oxymoron?|
|Authors:||Martínez Rubio, David | Torregrosa Carretero, Daniel | Grindlay, Guillermo | Gras, Luis | Mora, Juan|
|Research Group/s:||Espectrometría Atómica Analítica (GEAA)|
|Center, Department or Service:||Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Química Analítica, Nutrición y Bromatología|
|Keywords:||Metals | Sample preparation | Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction | Flow-injection | Atomic emission spectrometry | Inductively coupled plasma|
|Knowledge Area:||Química Analítica|
|Citation:||Talanta. 2018, 176: 374-381. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2017.08.036|
|Abstract:||Coupling dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is usually troublesome due to the limited plasma tolerance to the organic solvents usually employed for metal extraction. This work explores different coupling strategies allowing the multi-element determination by ICP-AES of the solutions obtained after DLLME procedures. To this end, three of the most common extractant solvents in DLLME procedures (1-undecanol, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chloroform) have been selected to face most of the main problems reported in DLLME-ICP-AES coupling (i.e., those arising from the high solvent viscosity and volatility). Results demonstrate that DLLME can be successfully coupled to ICP-AES after a careful optimization of the experimental conditions. Thus, elemental analysis in 1-undecanol and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate extracts can be achieved by ICP-AES after a simple dilution step with methanol (1:0.5). Chloroform can be directly introduced into the plasma with minimum changes in the ICP-AES configuration usually employed when operating with aqueous solutions. Diluted inorganic acid solutions (1% w w−1 either nitric or hydrochloric acids) have been successfully tested for the first time as a carrier for the introduction of organic extractants in ICP-AES. The coupling strategies proposed have been successfully applied to the multi-element analysis (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) of different water samples (i.e. marine, tap and river) by DLLME-ICP-AES.|
|Sponsor:||The authors would like to thank the Generalitat Valenciana (Project GV/2014/138) for the financial support of this work. D. Martínez and D. Torregrosa also thank the University of Alicante for the research fellowships (UAFPU2015-5998 and AII16-33).|
|ISSN:||0039-9140 (Print) | 1873-3573 (Online)|
|Rights:||© 2017 Elsevier B.V.|
|Appears in Collections:||INV - GEAA - Artículos de Revistas|
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