The Spanish version of the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ-E): reliability and validity assessment

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Title: The Spanish version of the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ-E): reliability and validity assessment
Authors: Soriano-Vidal, Francisco Javier | Oliver-Roig, Antonio | Cabrero-García, Julio | Congost-Maestre, Nereida | Dencker, Anna | Richart-Martínez, Miguel
Research Group/s: Calidad de Vida, Bienestar Psicológico y Salud | Inglés Profesional y Académico (IPA)
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Enfermería | Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Filología Inglesa
Keywords: Childbirth experience questionnaire | Construct validity | Birth satisfaction | Patient satisfaction | Postpartum period | Reliability
Knowledge Area: Enfermería | Filología Inglesa
Issue Date: 24-Nov-2016
Publisher: BioMed Central
Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2016, 16:372. doi:10.1186/s12884-016-1100-z
Abstract: Background: The Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) was originally designed to study women’s perceptions of labour and birth. The main objective of our study was to adapt the CEQ to the Spanish context and determine its psychometric properties. This would provide an opportunity to evaluate women’s experiences in order to improve evidence in the Spanish context as recommended by national guidelines. Methods: The CEQ was translated into Spanish using a standard forward and back translation method (CEQ-E). A convenience sample of 364 women was recruited from 3 Spanish hospitals; all participants were able to read and write in Spanish. Mothers with high risk pregnancies or preterm deliveries were excluded from the study. A self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic variables was completed by participants before discharge. Data on childbirth variables were obtained from maternity records. Between 1 and 3 months postpartum a postal CEQ-E questionnaire was sent. The CEQ-E structure was examined by a confirmatory factor analysis of polychoric correlations using a diagonally weighted least squares estimator. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. Construct validity was conducted by testing differences in CEQ-E scores between known-groups (to differ on key variables). Results: 226 (62.1%) of the recruited participants completed the postal questionnaire. The CEQ-E factor structure was similar to the original one. The Spanish version showed fit statistics in line with standard recommendations: CFI = 0.97; NNFI = 0.97; RMSEA = 0.066; SRMS = 0.077. The internal consistency reliability of the CEQ-E was good for the overall scale (0.88) and for all subscales (0.80, 0.90, 0.76, 0.68 for “own capacity”, “professional support”, “perceived safety” and “participation”, respectively) and similar to the original version. Women with a labour duration ≤ 12 h, women with a labour not induced, women with a normal birth and multiparous women showed higher overall CEQ-E scores and “perceived safety” subscale scores. Women with a labour duration ≤ 12 h and those with previous experience of labour obtained higher scores for the “own capacity” and “participation” subscales. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the CEQ-E can be considered a valid and reliable measure of women’s perceptions of labour and birth in Spain.
Sponsor: This work has been funded by the Project PI11/02124 and PI14/01549 within the Government R&D&I plan 2013–2016 and co-funded by ISCIII General Sub-Directorate for Evaluation and Promotion of research the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) "A way to make Europe".
ISSN: 1471-2393
DOI: 10.1186/s12884-016-1100-z
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © The Author(s). 2016 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Peer Review: si
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