Immunosuppression, peripheral inflammation and invasive infection from endogenous gut microbiota activate retinal microglia in mouse models

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Title: Immunosuppression, peripheral inflammation and invasive infection from endogenous gut microbiota activate retinal microglia in mouse models
Authors: Maneu, Victoria | Noailles, Agustina | Gómez-Vicente, Violeta | Carpena, Núria | Cuenca, Nicolás | Gil, María Luisa | Gozalbo, Daniel
Research Group/s: Neurobiología del Sistema Visual y Terapia de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (NEUROVIS)
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Óptica, Farmacología y Anatomía | Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Fisiología, Genética y Microbiología
Keywords: Colitis | Fungal colonization | Immunosuppression | Retinal microglia
Knowledge Area: Farmacología | Anatomía y Embriología Humana | Biología Celular
Issue Date: Sep-2016
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Citation: Microbiology and Immunology. 2016, 60(9): 617-625. doi:10.1111/1348-0421.12405
Abstract: Although its actual role in the progression of degenerative processes is not fully known, the persistent activated state of retinal microglia and the concurrent secretion of inflammatory mediators may contribute to neuronal death and permanent vision loss. Our objective was to determine whether non-ocular conditions (immunosuppression and peripheral inflammation) could lead to activation of retinal microglia. Mouse models of immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide and/or peripheral inflammation by chemically induced sublethal colitis in C57BL/6J mice were used. Retinal microglia morphology, spatial distribution and complexity, as well as MHCII and CD11b expression levels were determined by flow cytometry and confocal immunofluorescence analysis with anti-CD11b, anti-IBA1 and anti-MHCIIRT1B antibodies. Retinas of mice with double treatment showed changes in microglial morphology, spatial distribution and expression levels of CD11b and MHCII. These effects were higher than those observed with any treatment separately. In addition, we also observed in these mice: (i) translocation of endogenous bacteria from gut to liver, and (ii) upregulation of TLR2 expression in retinal microglia. Using a mouse model of immunosuppression and gut colonization by Candida albicans, translocation of fungal cells was confirmed to occur in wild type and, to a higher extent, in TLR2 KO mice, which are more susceptible to fungal invasion; interestingly microglial changes were also higher in TLR2 KO mice. Hence, non-ocular injuries (immunosuppression, peripheral inflammation and invasive infection from endogenous gut microbiota) can activate retinal microglia and therefore could affect the progression of neurodegenerative disorders and should be taken into account to improve therapeutic options.
Sponsor: This study was supported by project grants from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness-FEDER BFU2012-36845, Instituto de Salud Carlos III RETICS RD12/0034/0010, FUNDALUCE, Retina Asturias, ONCE and Fundación Jesús de Gangoiti Barrera.
ISSN: 0385-5600 (Print) | 1348-0421 (Online)
DOI: 10.1111/1348-0421.12405
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd
Peer Review: si
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Appears in Collections:INV - NEUROVIS - Artículos de Revistas

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