The Water Cycle of the Baltic Sea Region From GRACE/GRACE-FO Missions and ERA5 Data

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Title: The Water Cycle of the Baltic Sea Region From GRACE/GRACE-FO Missions and ERA5 Data
Authors: Boulahia, Ahmed Kamel | Garcia-Garcia, David | Vigo, Isabel | Trottini, Mario | Sayol, Juan Manuel
Research Group/s: Geodesia por Satélites para la Observación de la Tierra y el Cambio Climático / Satellite Geodesy for Earth Observation and Climate Studies (SG)
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Matemática Aplicada | Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Matemáticas
Keywords: Baltic Sea | Water cycle | Water transport | Runoff | Skagerrak–Kattegat | Danish straits
Knowledge Area: Matemática Aplicada | Estadística e Investigación Operativa
Issue Date: 12-May-2022
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Citation: Boulahia AK, García-García D, Vigo MI, Trottini M and Sayol J-M (2022) The Water Cycle of the Baltic Sea Region From GRACE/GRACE-FO Missions and ERA5 Data. Front. Earth Sci. 10:879148. doi: 10.3389/feart.2022.879148
Abstract: The water cycle of the Baltic Sea has been estimated from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the GRACE Follow-On satellite time-variable gravity measurements, and precipitation and evaporation from ERA5 atmospheric reanalysis data for the periods 06/2002 to 06/2017 and 06/2018 to 11/2021. On average, the Baltic Sea evaporates 199 ± 3 km3/year, which is overcompensated with 256 ± 6 km3/year of precipitation and 476 ± 17 km3/year of water from land. This surplus of freshwater inflow produces a salty water net outflow from the Baltic Sea of 515 ± 27 km3/year, which increases to 668 ± 32 km3/year when the Kattegat and Skagerrak straits are included. In general, the balance among the fluxes is not reached instantaneously, and all of them present seasonal variability. The Baltic net outflow reaches an annual minimum of 221 ± 79 km3/year in September and a maximum of 814 ± 94 km3/year in May, mainly driven by the freshwater contribution from land. On the interannual scale, the annual mean of the Baltic net outflow can vary up to 470 km3/year from year to year. This variability is not directly related to the North Atlantic Oscillation during wintertime, although the latter is well correlated with net precipitation in both continental drainage basins and the Baltic Sea.
Sponsor: DG-G, MV, and MT are partially funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation, and Universities grant number RTI2018-093874-B-100, and the Generalitat Valenciana grant number GVA-THINKINAZUL/2021/035. DG-G and MV are partially funded by the Generalitat Valenciana grant number PROMETEO/2021/030. J-MS thanks the joint funding received from Generalitat Valenciana and the European Social Fund under Grant APOSTD/2020/254. AB benefits from a doctoral study allowance financed by the Algerian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.
ISSN: 2296-6463
DOI: 10.3389/feart.2022.879148
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © 2022 Boulahia, García-García, Vigo, Trottini and Sayol. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Peer Review: si
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Appears in Collections:INV - SG - Artículos de Revistas

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