Hydrological cycle of the Mediterranean-Black Sea system

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Title: Hydrological cycle of the Mediterranean-Black Sea system
Authors: Garcia-Garcia, David | Vigo, Isabel | Trottini, Mario | Vargas Alemañy, Juan | Sayol, Juan Manuel
Research Group/s: Geodesia por Satélites para la Observación de la Tierra y el Cambio Climático / Satellite Geodesy for Earth Observation and Climate Studies (SG)
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Matemática Aplicada | Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Matemáticas
Keywords: Water transport | Mediterranean-Black Sea system | Satellite gravimetry | Runoff | Strait of Gibraltar | Turkish straits
Knowledge Area: Matemática Aplicada | Estadística e Investigación Operativa
Issue Date: 22-Feb-2022
Publisher: Springer Nature
Citation: Climate Dynamics. 2022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-022-06188-2
Abstract: The Mediterranean-Black Sea system consists of two semi-enclosed basins connected by the Turkish Straits. In turn, the Mediterranean Sea is connected to the Atlantic Ocean through the narrow Strait of Gibraltar. The hydrological cycle of the system is driven by fresh water exchanges between the atmosphere, continents and oceans, and by salty water mass exchange among the ocean basins. Monitoring such water fluxes, especially its time evolution, is essential to understand the water cycle in the region, which is very sensitive to global climate changes and influences the variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), which in turn affects the global climate. In this study, we have estimated the hydrological cycle of the Mediterranean-Black Sea system from the time-variable gravity observations performed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and GRACE Follow-On satellites, and precipitation and evaporation from ERA5 atmospheric reanalysis data for the period 2002–2020. In the Black Sea, rivers introduce an average water volume of 391 ± 12 km3/year, one third of which escape through the atmosphere and two thirds go to the Mediterranean Sea. In the latter, 1787 ± 23 km3/year are lost via net evaporation. The rivers runoff (502 ± 27 km3/year), and the inflow of Atlantic waters (1020 ± 56 km3/year; 0.0323 ± 0.0018 Sv), finally restore the Mediterranean water budget. The balance is not reached instantaneously, and this delay introduces a seasonal variability in all the fluxes. In particular, the net water flux from the Atlantic Ocean increases up to 2660 ± 111 km3/year in August/September, and reverses to − 407 ± 140 km3/year in April/May. On top of the climatology, the mean annual Atlantic water flux varies significantly between 706 and 1262 km3/year.
Sponsor: Open Access funding provided thanks to the CRUE-CSIC agreement with Springer Nature. The work of DGG, MIV, and MT was partially supported by Spanish Project RTI2018-093874-B-100 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, and by Generalitat Valenciana grant number GVA-THINKINAZUL/2021/035. DGG and IV were partially supported by Grant PROMETEO/2021/030 (Generalitat Valenciana). JMS thanks the joint funding received from the Generalitat Valenciana and the European Social Fund under Grant APOSTD/2020/254.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10045/121760
ISSN: 0930-7575 (Print) | 1432-0894 (Online)
DOI: 10.1007/s00382-022-06188-2
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © The Author(s) 2022. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Peer Review: si
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-022-06188-2
Appears in Collections:INV - SG - Artículos de Revistas

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