Model-Based Decomposition of Dual-Pol SAR Data: Application to Sentinel-1

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Title: Model-Based Decomposition of Dual-Pol SAR Data: Application to Sentinel-1
Authors: Mascolo, Lucio | Cloude, Shane R. | Lopez-Sanchez, Juan M.
Research Group/s: Señales, Sistemas y Telecomunicación
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Física, Ingeniería de Sistemas y Teoría de la Señal | Universidad de Alicante. Instituto Universitario de Investigación Informática
Keywords: Sentinel-1 | Polarimetric decompositions | Wave polarimetry | Land-cover | Land-ice
Knowledge Area: Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones
Issue Date: 23-Dec-2021
Publisher: IEEE
Citation: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 2022, 60: 5220119.
Abstract: In this study, we advance a new family of model-based decompositions adapted for dual-pol synthetic aperture radar data. These are formulated using the Stokes vector formalism, coupled to mappings from full quad-pol decomposition theory. A generalized model-based decomposition is developed, which allows separation of an arbitrary Stokes vector into partially polarized and polarized wave components. We employ the widely used random dipole cloud as a volume model but, in general, non-dipole options can be used. The cross-polarized phase δ, and the α angle, which is a function of the ratio between wave components, measure the transformation of polarization state on reflection. We apply the decomposition to dual-pol data provided by Sentinel-1 covering different scenarios, such as agricultural, forest, urban and glacial land-ice. We show that the polarized term of received polarization state is not usually the same as the transmitted one, and can therefore be used for key applications, e.g., classification and geo-physical parameter estimation. We show that, for vegetated terrain, depolarization is not the only influencing factor to Sentinel-1 backscattered intensities and, in the case of vertical crops (e.g., rice), this allows the crop orientation effects to be decoupled from volume scattering in the canopy. We demonstrate that coherent dual-pol systems show strong phase signatures over glaciers, where the polarized contribution significantly affects the backscattered state, resulting in elliptical polarization on receive. This is a key result for Sentinel-1, for which dual-pol phase analysis coupled to dense time series offer great opportunities for land-ice monitoring.
Sponsor: This work was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, the State Agency of Research (AEI) and the European Funds for Regional Development (EFRD) under Projects TEC2017-85244-C2-1-P and PID2020-117303GB-C22, and by the University of Alicante under grant VIGROB-114.
ISSN: 0196-2892 (Print) | 1558-0644 (Online)
DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2021.3137588
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © IEEE
Peer Review: si
Publisher version:
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