Interpretation of OCT and OCTA images from a histological approach: Clinical and experimental implications

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Title: Interpretation of OCT and OCTA images from a histological approach: Clinical and experimental implications
Authors: Cuenca, Nicolás | Ortuño-Lizarán, Isabel | Sánchez-Sáez, Xavier | Kutsyr, Oksana | Albertos Arranz, Henar | Fernández-Sánchez, Laura | Martínez Gil, Natalia | Noailles, Agustina | López-Garrido, José Antonio | Lopez-Galvez, Maria Isabel | Lax, Pedro | Maneu, Victoria | Pinilla Lozano, Isabel
Research Group/s: Neurobiología del Sistema Visual y Terapia de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (NEUROVIS)
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Fisiología, Genética y Microbiología | Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Óptica, Farmacología y Anatomía | Universidad de Alicante. Instituto Multidisciplinar para el Estudio del Medio "Ramón Margalef"
Keywords: OCT | OCTA | Retina | Animal models | Clinical implication | Pathology | Immunohistochemistry | Human fovea | Retinal human vascularization
Knowledge Area: Biología Celular | Farmacología | Fisiología
Issue Date: Jul-2020
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 2020, 77: 100828.
Abstract: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) have been a technological breakthrough in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of many retinal diseases, thanks to its resolution and its ability to inform of the retinal state in seconds, which gives relevant information about retinal degeneration. In this review, we present an immunohistochemical description of the human and mice retina and we correlate it with the OCT bands in health and pathological conditions. Here, we propose an interpretation of the four outer hyperreflective OCT bands with a correspondence to retinal histology: the first and innermost band as the external limiting membrane (ELM), the second band as the cone ellipsoid zone (EZ), the third band as the outer segment tips phagocytosed by the pigment epithelium (PhaZ), and the fourth band as the mitochondria in the basal portion of the RPE (RPEmitZ). The integrity of these bands would reflect the health of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. Moreover, we describe how the vascular plexuses vary in different regions of the healthy human and mice retina, using OCTA and immunohistochemistry. In humans, four, three, two or one plexuses can be observed depending on the distance from the fovea. Also, specific structures such as vascular loops in the intermediate capillary plexus, or spider-like structures of interconnected capillaries in the deep capillary plexus are found. In mice, three vascular plexuses occupy the whole retina, except in the most peripheral retina where only two plexuses are found. These morphological issues should be considered when assessing a pathology, as some retinal diseases are associated with structural changes in blood vessels. Therefore, the analysis of OCT bands and OCTA vascular plexuses may be complementary for the diagnosis and prognosis of retinal degenerative processes, useful to assess therapeutic approaches, and it is usually correlated to visual acuity.
Sponsor: This research was funded by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO-FEDER BFU 2015-67139-R), Spanish Ministry of Education (FPU14/03166, FPU16/04114, and FPU18/02964), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (RETICS-FEDER RD16/0008/0016 and RD16/0008/0001), Asociación Retina Asturias, and Generalitat Valenciana (PROMETEO/2016/158, ACIF/2016/055 and Generalitat Valenciana-FEDER IDIFEDER/2017/064).
ISSN: 1350-9462 (Print) | 1873-1635 (Online)
DOI: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2019.100828
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © 2020 Elsevier Ltd.
Peer Review: si
Publisher version:
Appears in Collections:INV - NEUROVIS - Artículos de Revistas

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