Automatic detection and characterisation of the first P- and S-wave pulse in rocks using ultrasonic transmission method

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Title: Automatic detection and characterisation of the first P- and S-wave pulse in rocks using ultrasonic transmission method
Authors: Benavente, David | Galiana-Merino, Juan José | Pla, Concepción | Martínez Martínez, Javier | Crespo Jiménez, David
Research Group/s: Petrología Aplicada | Grupo de Ingeniería y Riesgo Sísmico (GIRS) | Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental (INGHA)
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente | Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Física, Ingeniería de Sistemas y Teoría de la Señal | Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Ingeniería Civil
Keywords: Ultrasound | Nondestructive testing | Wavelet analysis | Building stones | Primary wave velocity | Shear wave velocity
Knowledge Area: Petrología y Geoquímica | Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones | Ingeniería Hidráulica
Issue Date: 5-Mar-2020
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Engineering Geology. 2020, 266: 105474. doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2020.105474
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new methodology for the automatic picking of P- and S- wave arrivals. The measurement of elastic wave velocities is crucial for characterisation of the elastic properties of rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical properties and durability. P-waves are easy to generate and acquire, whereas the acquisition and subsequent analysis of the S-waves present major difficulties in most investigations of rocks. In our proposed method the recorded signal is first pre-processed in the wavelet domain, removing low-frequency disturbances and filtering noise. The signal is then analysed in the time-domain to detect and characterise the first pulse and, subsequently, estimate the corresponding onset time. The automatic approach analyses all pulses detected in the output signal and selects the first pulse of the P or S wave relative to symmetry, amplitude and duration criteria. This triple check provides greater confidence in the obtained results. We record P- and S- waveforms through the transmission method for a broad range of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks used in buildings. Results are compared to manual picking, which is considered as a true or reference value. The recorded signals show that microstructural components of rocks have a strong influence on the output signal. Mineralogical composition, porosity and particle size affect the wave velocity, attenuation, wavelength and waveform, which in turn influences the manual picking of the onset time. The proposed methodology provides precise values of the onset time of P- and S- waves. The discrepancies between automatic and manual P- and S- wave picking are 0.7 and 4.4%, respectively. P-wave signals have a high signal-to-noise ratio and their arrival times are clear and easy to determine. However, the arrival time of S-waves presents significant problems, mainly for medium to coarse-grained rocks. In this case, the output signal is contaminated by P-waves and has a lower signal-to-noise ratio. Besides, propagation of the S-wave through the rock affects the frequency and waveform of the first pulse, which complicates manual picking of the onset time. The developed methodology distinguishes between the S-wave and the remaining P-waves contained in the transversal signal, independently of the skill and subjectivity of a human analyst.
Sponsor: This work was supported by the Spanish Government [grant number RTI2018-099052-B-I00], Regional Government of Comunidad Valenciana (Spain) [grant number AICO/2016/098] and Madrid (Spain) [Top Heritage, grant number S2018/NMT-4372] and the University of Alicante [grant number GRE17-12]. Predoctoral fellowships were awarded to D. Crespo-Jimenez by the MEFP [FPU2017/04377 and BDNS 311327].
ISSN: 0013-7952 (Print) | 1872-6917 (Online)
DOI: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2020.105474
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Peer Review: si
Publisher version:
Appears in Collections:INV - IngHA - Artículos de Revistas
INV - PETRA - Artículos de Revistas
INV - GIRS - Artículos de Revistas

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