From Waste to Wealth: From Kraft Lignin to Free-standing Supercapacitors

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Title: From Waste to Wealth: From Kraft Lignin to Free-standing Supercapacitors
Authors: Schlee, Philipp | Hosseinaei, Omid | Baker, Darren | Landmér, Alice | Tomani, Per | Mostazo-López, María José | Cazorla-Amorós, Diego | Herou, Servann | Titirici, Maria-Magdalena
Research Group/s: Materiales Carbonosos y Medio Ambiente
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Química Inorgánica | Universidad de Alicante. Instituto Universitario de Materiales
Keywords: Kraft lignin | Free-standing | Supercapacitors
Knowledge Area: Química Inorgánica
Issue Date: Apr-2019
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Carbon. 2019, 145: 470-480. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2019.01.035
Abstract: Pure eucalyptus Kraft lignin derived carbon fiber mats were produced based on a model workflow. It covers the preparation and characterization of the lignin precursor and the carbon materials and its testing in the final application (supercapacitor). Sequential solvent extraction was employed to produce a eucalyptus Kraft lignin precursor which could be electrospun into lignin fibers without any additives. The fiber formation from low molecular weight lignin is assigned to strong intermolecular interactions via hydrogen bonding and π-π-stacking between individual lignin macromolecules which gives rise to association complexes in the electrospinning solution. By stabilization in air, carbonization in N2 and an activation step in CO2, free-standing microporous carbon fiber mats could be produced. These fiber mats possess mainly basic oxygen functional groups which proved to be beneficial when tested as free-standing electrodes in symmetric supercapacitors. Consequently, the CO2-activated fiber mats showed a high specific gravimetric capacitance of 155 F/g at 0.1 A/g, excellent rate capability with 113 F/g at 250 A/g and good capacitance retention of 94% after 6000 cycles when tested in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Therefore, we conclude that lignin itself is a promising precursor to produce microporous, oxygen functionalized carbon fibers serving as free-standing electrodes in aqueous supercapacitors.
Sponsor: We would like to thank EPSRC (EP/R021554/1, EP/N509899/1, EP/P031323/1) for the financial support.
ISSN: 0008-6223 (Print) | 1873-3891 (Online)
DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2019.01.035
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © 2019 Elsevier Ltd.
Peer Review: si
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Appears in Collections:INV - MCMA - Artículos de Revistas

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