Isocyanate emissions from pyrolysis of mattresses containing polyurethane foam

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Title: Isocyanate emissions from pyrolysis of mattresses containing polyurethane foam
Authors: Garrido, María A. | Gerecke, Andreas C. | Heeb, Norbert | Font, Rafael | Conesa, Juan A.
Research Group/s: Residuos, Energía, Medio Ambiente y Nanotecnología (REMAN)
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Ingeniería Química | Universidad de Alicante. Instituto Universitario de Ingeniería de los Procesos Químicos
Keywords: Flexible polyurethane foam | Viscoelastic memory foam | Pyrolysis | Isocyanates | Aminoisocyanates
Knowledge Area: Ingeniería Química
Issue Date: Feb-2017
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Chemosphere. 2017, 168: 667-675. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.11.009
Abstract: This study examined the emissions of powerful asthmatic agents called isocyanates from small-scale pyrolysis experiments of two common foams employed in mattress production such as flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) and viscoelastic memory foam (VMF). A nitrogen atmosphere and five different temperatures, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 850 °C, were selected to carry out the experiments in order to evaluate the worst possible conditions for thermal degradation. A similar trend for both materials was found. At lower temperatures, diisocyanates were the most important products whereas at 850 °C monoisocyanates, and mainly isocyanic acid released mainly from the thermal cracking of diisocyanates evolved directly from the polymer chains. The total yields of isocyanates were in the range of 1.43–11.95 mg/m3 for FPUF at 300-850 °C and 0.05–6.13 mg/m3 for VMF, 300-850 °C. This difference could be a consequence of the lower amount of isocyanates employed in the VMF production which was confirmed by the nitrogen content of the foams, 5.95% FPUF vs. 3.34% in VMF. Additionally, a qualitative search for so far unknown isocyanates was performed in samples from the pyrolysis of FPUF at 300, 400 and 850 °C. It was confirmed that six different aminoisocyanates at 300 °C were evolved, whereas at 400 and 850 °C only five of them were detected. The general trend observed was a decrease of the aminoisocyanate levels with increasing pyrolysis temperature.
Sponsor: Support for this work was provided by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, by the CTQ2013-41006-R project from the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Spain), the PROMETEOII/2014/007 project from the Valencian Community Government (Spain) and a mobility grant by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (Spain) that enabled María Garrido to visit EMPA, in Switzerland.
ISSN: 0045-6535 (Print) | 1879-1298 (Online)
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.11.009
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Peer Review: si
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Appears in Collections:INV - REMAN - Artículos de Revistas

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