Imaging Land Subsidence Induced by Groundwater Extraction in Beijing (China) Using Satellite Radar Interferometry

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Title: Imaging Land Subsidence Induced by Groundwater Extraction in Beijing (China) Using Satellite Radar Interferometry
Authors: Chen, Mi | Tomás, Roberto | Li, Zhenhong | Motagh, Mahdi | Li, Tao | Hu, Leyin | Gong, Huili | Li, Xiaojuan | Yu, Jun | Gong, Xulong
Research Group/s: Ingeniería del Terreno y sus Estructuras (InTerEs)
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Ingeniería Civil
Keywords: Radar | InSAR | Beijing | Land subsidence | Triggering factors | Conditioning factors
Knowledge Area: Ingeniería del Terreno
Issue Date: 2-Jun-2016
Publisher: MDPI
Citation: Chen M, Tomás R, Li Z, Motagh M, Li T, Hu L, Gong H, Li X, Yu J, Gong X. Imaging Land Subsidence Induced by Groundwater Extraction in Beijing (China) Using Satellite Radar Interferometry. Remote Sensing. 2016; 8(6):468. doi:10.3390/rs8060468
Abstract: Beijing is one of the most water-stressed cities in the world. Due to over-exploitation of groundwater, the Beijing region has been suffering from land subsidence since 1935. In this study, the Small Baseline InSAR technique has been employed to process Envisat ASAR images acquired between 2003 and 2010 and TerraSAR-X stripmap images collected from 2010 to 2011 to investigate land subsidence in the Beijing region. The maximum subsidence is seen in the eastern part of Beijing with a rate greater than 100 mm/year. Comparisons between InSAR and GPS derived subsidence rates show an RMS difference of 2.94 mm/year with a mean of 2.41 ± 1.84 mm/year. In addition, a high correlation was observed between InSAR subsidence rate maps derived from two different datasets (i.e., Envisat and TerraSAR-X). These demonstrate once again that InSAR is a powerful tool for monitoring land subsidence. InSAR derived subsidence rate maps have allowed for a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis to identify the main triggering factors of land subsidence. Some interesting relationships in terms of land subsidence were found with groundwater level, active faults, accumulated soft soil thickness and different aquifer types. Furthermore, a relationship with the distances to pumping wells was also recognized in this work.
Sponsor: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 41201419 and a China Scholarship Council (CSC) scholarship to Mi Chen. Roberto Tomás was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport through the project PRX14/00100. Part of this work is also supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and EU FEDER funds under projects TIN2014-55413-C2-2-P, by the UK Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC) through the LICS and IRNHiC projects (ref. NE/K010794/1 and NE/N012151/1, respectively), the ESA-MOST DRAGON-3 projects (ref. 10607 and 10665) and the Open Fund from the Key Laboratory of Earth Fissures Geological Disaster, Ministry of Land and Resources (Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province).
ISSN: 2072-4292
DOI: 10.3390/rs8060468
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (
Peer Review: si
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