Central melanopsin projections in the diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus

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Title: Central melanopsin projections in the diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus
Authors: Langel, Jennifer L. | Smale, Laura | Esquiva Sobrino, Gema | Hannibal, Jens
Research Group/s: Neurobiología del Sistema Visual y Terapia de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (NEUROVIS)
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Fisiología, Genética y Microbiología
Keywords: Retinal projections | PACAP | Melanopsin | Circadian rhythms | Nile grass rat | Suprachiasmatic nucleus | LGN | Pretectum
Knowledge Area: Biología Celular
Issue Date: 14-Jul-2015
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Citation: Langel JL, Smale L, Esquiva G and Hannibal J (2015) Central melanopsin projections in the diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus. Front. Neuroanat. 9:93. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2015.00093
Abstract: The direct effects of photic stimuli on behavior are very different in diurnal and nocturnal species, as light stimulates an increase in activity in the former and a decrease in the latter. Studies of nocturnal mice have implicated a select population of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs) in mediation of these acute responses to light. ipRGCs are photosensitive due to the expression of the photopigment melanopsin; these cells use glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) as neurotransmitters. PACAP is useful for the study of central ipRGC projections because, in the retina, it is found exclusively within melanopsin cells. Little is known about the central projections of ipRGCs in diurnal species. Here, we first characterized these cells in the retina of the diurnal Nile grass rat using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The same basic subtypes of melanopsin cells that have been described in other mammals were present, but nearly 25% of them were displaced, primarily in its superior region. PACAP was present in 87.7% of all melanopsin cells, while 97.4% of PACAP cells contained melanopsin. We then investigated central projections of ipRGCs by examining the distribution of immunoreactive PACAP fibers in intact and enucleated animals. This revealed evidence that these cells project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), pretectum, and superior colliculus. This distribution was confirmed with injections of cholera toxin subunit β coupled with Alexa Fluor 488 in one eye and Alexa Fluor 594 in the other, combined with IHC staining of PACAP. These studies also revealed that the ventral and dorsal LGN and the caudal olivary pretectal nucleus receive less innervation from ipRGCs than that reported in nocturnal rodents. Overall, these data suggest that although ipRGCs and their projections are very similar in diurnal and nocturnal rodents, they may not be identical.
Sponsor: This study was supported by the National Science Foundation grant (IOS-1051919) to LS and the Danish Biotechnology Center for Cellular Communication (JH).
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10045/48580
ISSN: 1662-5129
DOI: 10.3389/fnana.2015.00093
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Rights: © 2015 Langel, Smale, Esquiva and Hannibal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Peer Review: si
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2015.00093
Appears in Collections:INV - NEUROVIS - Artículos de Revistas

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