Non-linear decay of building stones during freeze–thaw weathering processes

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Title: Non-linear decay of building stones during freeze–thaw weathering processes
Authors: Martínez Martínez, Javier | Benavente, David | Gómez Heras, Miguel | Marco Castaño, Luz | García del Cura, María Ángeles
Research Group/s: Petrología Aplicada | Grupo de Investigación en Restauración Arquitectónica de la Universidad de Alicante. GIRAUA-CICOP
Center, Department or Service: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente
Keywords: Catastrophic stone decay | Ultrasounds | Strength | Elastic modulus | Limestone | Porosity | Frost durability
Knowledge Area: Petrología y Geoquímica
Issue Date: Jan-2013
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Construction and Building Materials. 2013, 38: 443-454. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.07.059
Abstract: This paper studies the resistance of rocks to freeze–thaw and their petrophysical evolution during weathering. Moreover, the accuracy of existing standards regarding frost durability is discussed. A long-term test was established with these purposes, in which 102 samples of six different dimension stone types were tested (carbonates). Samples were divided into five groups and each group was tested after 0, 12, 24, 48 and 96 freeze–thaw cycles. At the end of the cycles several properties were measured: volume loss, open porosity variation, visual damage, mechanical properties evolution (measuring strength and elastic modulus) and ultrasonic propagation (quantifying both P-wave velocity and spatial attenuation). The micro-textural evolution was also studied using SEM in polished samples. Results display that the rocks with the highest open porosity values (>10%) are the least durable. These rocks show a non-linear decay pattern, with long periods of apparent stability followed by rapid and catastrophic decay. Microscopic observation reveals that during the stable period, isolated microcracks appear from where new ones nucleate and grow as the test progresses. When a critical threshold is exceeded, microcracks turn into cracks and grow rapidly, causing rock breakdown after a low number of cycles. Most of the measured petrophysical parameters do not predict the ultimate breakdown of rocks. However, spatial attenuation of ultrasonic waves reveals as the most sensitive parameter, detecting the critical decay threshold of rocks and their imminent breakdown. Results suggest an important review of standardized durability tests since they do not reflect the reality of frost weathering of rocks: to increase the number of freeze–thaw cycles and to monitoring the weathering process of samples by means ultrasonic measurements.
Sponsor: This study was financed by the Spanish Government (Consolider-Ingenio Programme CSD2007-0058) and by the Government of the Region of Madrid (Project Geomateriales S2009/MAT-1629).
ISSN: 0950-0618 (Print) | 1879-0526 (Online)
DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.07.059
Language: eng
Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Peer Review: si
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Appears in Collections:INV - PETRA - Artículos de Revistas
INV - GIRAUA-CICOP - Artículos de Revistas

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