Virioplankton Community Structure in Tunisian Solar Salterns

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Título: Virioplankton Community Structure in Tunisian Solar Salterns
Autor/es: Boujelben, Ines | Yarza, Pablo | Almansa Carrascosa, María Cristina | Villamor Serrano, Judit | Maalej, Sami | Anton, Josefa | Santos Sánchez, Fernando
Grupo/s de investigación o GITE: Ecología Microbiana Molecular | Materiales Avanzados
Centro, Departamento o Servicio: Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Fisiología, Genética y Microbiología
Palabras clave: Microbial community | Sfax solar salterns | Tunisia | Virioplankton
Área/s de conocimiento: Microbiología
Fecha de publicación: 17-ago-2012
Editor: American Society for Microbiology
Cita bibliográfica: BOUJELBEN, Ines, et al. "Virioplankton Community Structure in Tunisian Solar Salterns". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Vol. 78, No. 20 (Oct. 2012). ISSN 0099-2240, pp. 7429-7437
Resumen: The microbial community inhabiting Sfax solar salterns on the east coast of Tunisia has been studied by means of different molecular and culture-dependent tools that have unveiled the presence of novel microbial groups as well as a community structure different from that of other coastal hypersaline environments. We have focused on the study of the viral assemblages of these salterns and their changes along the salinity gradient and over time. Viruses from three ponds (C4, M1, and TS) encompassing salinities from moderately hypersaline to saturated (around 14, 19, and 35%, respectively) were sampled in May and October 2009 and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Additionally, for all three October samples and the May TS sample, viral metagenomic DNA was cloned in fosmids, end sequenced, and analyzed. Viral concentration, as well as virus-to-cell ratios, increased along the salinity gradient, with around 1010 virus-like particles (VLPs)/ml in close-to-saturation ponds, which represents the highest viral concentration reported so far for aquatic systems. Four distinct morphologies could be observed with TEM (spherical, tailed, spindled, and filamentous) but with various proportions in the different samples. Metagenomic analyses indicated that every pond harbored a distinct viral assemblage whose G+C content could be roughly correlated with that of the active part of the microbial community that may have constituted the putative hosts. As previously reported for hypersaline metaviromes, most sequences did not have matches in the databases, although some were conserved among the Sfax metaviromes. BLASTx, BLASTp, and dinucleotide frequency analyses indicated that (i) factors additional to salinity could be structuring viral communities and (ii) every metavirome had unique gene contents and dinucleotide frequencies. Comparison with hypersaline metaviromes available in the databases indicated that the viral assemblages present in close-to-saturation environments located thousands of kilometers apart presented some common traits among them in spite of their differences regarding the putative hosts. A small core metavirome for close-to-saturation systems was found that contained 7 sequences of around 100 nucleotides (nt) whose function was not hinted at by in silico search results, although it most likely represents properties essential for hyperhalophilic viruses.
Patrocinador/es: This work was funded by projects A/018342/08 from the Spanish Agency for International Cooperation (AECI) and CGL2009-12651-C02-01 from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN), including FEDER funds.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10045/33390
ISSN: 0099-2240 (Print) | 1098-5336 (Online)
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01793-12
Idioma: eng
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Derechos: Copyright © 2012 by the American Society for Microbiology
Revisión científica: si
Versión del editor: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01793-12
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